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The eruption of El Jorullo (1759–1774) in Guanajuato, Mexico, generated substantial (100–300 m high) pyroclastic cones, an extensive ash blanket and a flow field of thick lavas. The cones have the aspect of scoria cones that result from Strombolian eruptions, but the ash blankets consist predominantly of sub millimetre-sized particles (comprising ≥80 wt% beyond 1 km from the vent). This combination of cones, fine deposit grain size, and moderate dispersal area has previously been attributed to ‘violent Strombolian’ eruptions. The ash blanket at El Jorullo comprises c. 40% of the erupted volume and contains hundreds of strictly parallel...

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