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Lava-rise structures form by endogenous growth where lava is injected under, and lifts up, its surface crust. They are especially common in pahoehoe where it flows on shallow gradients (.48). Examples are described from the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) 1859 and Xitle (Mexico) 1.5 ka basalt flow-fields, and range from ten to hundreds of metres wide by up to 13 m high. The lobes that host the lava-rise structures were initially thin (≥1 m) and it is estimated that at least 80% of their total volume was emplaced by subcrustal injection. They are bounded by lava-rise edges that are highly...

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