Tectonics of Strike-Slip Restraining and Releasing Bends
Restraining and releasing bends are common, but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems occurring in all crustal environments and at regional to microscopic scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation, whereas releasing bends are sites of topographic subsidence, transtensional deformation, basin sedimentation and possible volcanism and economic mineralization. Because restraining and releasing bends often occur as singular self-contained domains of complex deformation, they are appealing natural laboratories for Earth scientists to study fault processes, earthquake seismology, active faulting and sedimentation, fault and fluid-flow relationships, links between tectonics and topography, tectonic and erosional controls on exhumation, and tectonic geomorphology.
This volume addresses the tectonic complexity and diversity of strike-slip restraining and releasing bends with 18 contributions divided into four thematic sections: (1) a topical review of fault bends and their global distribution; (2) bends, sedimentary basins and earthquake hazards; (3) restraining bends, transpressional deformation and basement controls on development; (4) releasing bends, transtensional deformation and fluid flow.
Strain partitioning of active transpression within the Lebanese restraining bend of the Dead Sea Fault (Lebanon and SW Syria)
Published:January 01, 2007
F. Gomez, T. Nemer, C. Tabet, M. Khawlie, M. Meghraoui, M. Barazangi, 2007. "Strain partitioning of active transpression within the Lebanese restraining bend of the Dead Sea Fault (Lebanon and SW Syria)", Tectonics of Strike-Slip Restraining and Releasing Bends, W. D. Cunningham, P. Mann
Download citation file:
Recent neotectonic, palaeoseismic and GPS results along the central Dead Sea fault system elucidate the spatial distribution of crustal deformation within a large (c.180-km-long) restraining bend along this major continental transform. Within the ‘Lebanese’ restraining bend, the Dead Sea fault system splays into several key branches, and we suggest herein that active deformation is partitioned between NNE–SSW strike-slip faults and WNW–ESE crustal shortening. When plate motion is resolved into strike-slip parallel to the two prominent NNE–SSW strike-slip faults (the Yammouneh and Serghaya faults) and orthogonal motion, their slip rates are sufficient to account for all expected strike-slip motion. Shortening of the Mount Lebanon Range is inferred from the geometry and kinematics of the Roum Fault, as well as preliminary quantification of coastal uplift. The results do not account for all expected crustal shortening, suggesting that some contraction is probably accommodated in the Anti-Lebanon Range. It also seems unlikely that the present kinematic configuration characterizes the entire Cenozoic history of the restraining bend. Present-day strain partitioning contrasts with published observations on finite deformation in Lebanon, demonstrating distributed shear and vertical-axis block rotations. Furthermore, the present-day proportions of strike-slip displacement and crustal shortening are inconsistent with the total strike-slip offset and the lack of a significantly thickened crust. This suggests that the present rate of crustal shortening has not persisted for the longer life of the transform. Hence, we suggest that the Lebanese restraining bend evolved in a polyphase manner, involving an earlier episode of wrench-faulting and block rotation, followed by a later period of strain partitioning.