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Non-volcanic margins such as the West Iberian margin exhibit certain characteristics, such as a deficit of synrift igneous rock, a zone of exhumed subcontinental mantle in the continent–ocean transition and an apparent extension discrepancy. These observations can be explained as a consequence of the progressive extension of the lithosphere above relatively cool mantle. The evolving rheological stratification of the lithosphere controls the style of extension at different lithospheric levels at different times; extension is probably heterogeneous at all stages, with lower crustal and upper mantle boudinage controlling the patterns of thinning and mantle upwelling early in the rift history,...

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