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There have been significant advances over the last ten years in the use of the seismic anisotropy concept to characterize subsurface fracture systems. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are now used to deduce quantitative information about the fracture orientation and the spatial distribution of fracture intensity. Analysis of the data is based upon various equivalent medium theories that describe the elastic response of a rock containing cracks or fractures in the long wavelength limit. Conventional models assume scale/frequency independence and hence cannot distinguish between micro-cracks and macrofractures. The latter, however, control the fluid flow in many oil/gas reservoirs, as the...

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