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The ultimate fate of CO2 injected into saline aquifers for environmental isolation is governed by three interdependent yet conceptually distinct processes: CO2 migration as a buoyant immiscible fluid phase, direct chemical interaction of this rising plume with ambient saline waters, and its indirect chemical interaction with aquifer and caprock minerals through the aqueous wetting phase. Each process is directly linked to a corresponding trapping mechanism: immiscible plume migration to hydrodynamic trapping, plume-water interaction to solubility trapping, and plume-mineral interaction to mineral trapping. In this study, reactive transport modelling of CO2 storage in a shele-capped sandstone aquifer...

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