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After the drought of 1933–1934 the Geological Survey became responsible, under the Inland Water Survey, for collecting and collating data on groundwater. In 1935 a Water Unit was formed for this purpose. Following the Water Act of 1945, the Survey advised the Government on aspects of the Act relating to groundwater. The Act led to the introduction of quantitative hydrogeology in England and Wales. The groundwater resources of the main aquifers were assessed, well hydraulic theory was applied to British aquifers, and geophysical techniques and new instrumentation introduced.

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