Fluidization structures produced by upward injection of sand through a sealing lithology
Published:January 01, 2003
Andrew Hurst, Joe Cartwright, Davide Duranti, 2003. "Fluidization structures produced by upward injection of sand through a sealing lithology", Subsurface Sediment Mobilization, P. Van Rensbergen, R. R. Hillis, A. J. Maltman, C. K. Morley
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Subsurface and outcrop data are used to describe sand injectites, a group of genetically related features that includes sandstone dykes and sills, but also structures within depositional sand bodies. Fluidization is identified as the process by which sand is injected but we draw attention to the lack of constraints regarding fluidization velocity and fluid viscosity. Injectites are shown to develop between < 10 m and 500 m below the seafloor. No relationship between depth of generation and injection geometry is found. Liquefaction of sand may produce sufficient excess pore fluid to create small sand injections during shallow burial. Large...
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Subsurface Sediment Mobilization
Sedimentary facies in the subsurface are usually interpreted from a epositional/stratigraphical perspective: the depositional layering is generally considered to remain undisturbed, except in a few settings. But, there is growing evidence that subsurface sediment mobilization (SSM) is more widespread than previously thought, as new observations arise from the ever-increasing resolution of subsurface data. Many examples are from hydrocarbon provinces but studies elsewhere, for example in preparation for the underground storage of hazardous waste, have yielded unexpected examples. Although until now the different aspects of SSM, including soft sediment deformations, sand injections, shale diapirs, mud volcanoes, etc, have been separated, the new discoveries emphasize their inter-connection, regardless of scale, depth, location, grain size or trigger mechanism. This volume integrates the different aspects of sediment mobilization in the subsurface and their structural consequences, allowing a more generaland a more coherent view of the subject.