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A numerical code has been used to simulate the flow patterns in geological soft sediments that are driven by buoyancy forces resulting from reverse-density stratification. The aim was to provide a clearer understanding of the different roles of initiating conditions, inertia and rheological behaviour on the morphologies and timing of formation of natural features such as load casts and flame structures. Particular attention was paid to the cuspate form of rising intrusions that is commonly seen in nature but that has proved elusive in most earlier experiments. The numerical results demonstrate that large localised initiating perturbations and inertial influence...

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