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Subglacial volcanic eruptions can generate large volumes of meltwater that is stored and transported beneath glaciers and released catastrophically in jökulhlaups. At typical basaltic dyke propagation speeds, the high strain rate at a dyke tip causes ice to behave as a brittle solid; dykes can overshoot a rock–ice interface to intrude through 20–30% of the thickness of the overlying ice. The very large surface area of the dyke sides causes rapid melting of ice and subsequent collapse of the dyke to form a basal rubble pile. Magma can also be intruded at the substrate–ice interface as a sill, spreading...

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