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Old Red Sandstone rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland record the amalgamation history of blocks widely separated from each other in Ordovician times. As a response to the lateral juxtaposition of the Midland Valley against the Highland block, the Midland Valley, weakened during its long history of igneous activity, was subjected to transtension and transpression, which opened and closed basins resulting in much recycling of sediment and the renewed development of intermittent and sometimes prolific volcanic activity. The Old Red Sandstone comprises two cycles of basin fill: the older (the Lower Old Red Sandstone) is separated by a...

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