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The presence of travertines adjacent to the city and their value for construction was well known to the Greek, Roman and Byzantine residents of Hierapolis (modern Pamukkale). The travertines were mainly extracted from quarries on the outer slopes of a low plateau below the city. The distinctive attribute of most of the quarries is that they are narrow but deep vertical-sided trenches. Each trench is the site of a nearly vertical fissure that was filled by banded fissure travertine, one type of so-called Phrygian marble. Trench walls, formerly the contacts between vertical banded travertines and outward dipping bedded travertines,...

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