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Civil engineering constructions of all kinds use large quantities of natural materials ranging from soils and clays through sand, gravel and crushed rock to large blocks of rock, which may be used as armourstone, for shaping into dimension stone, or as cladding, tiles or pavers. Excavation, cuttings and ground preparation associated with many construction projects require large volumes of soil and rock to be removed. Where possible, this bulk material is reused as foundation layers for buildings and roads, and, more commonly, as fill for embankments or bunds.

Today, there is increasing pressure to reuse or recycle the demolition...

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