SAMUEL EPSTEIN, RALPH BUCHSBAUM, HEINZ LOWENSTAM, HAROLD C UREY; CARBONATE-WATER ISOTOPIC TEMPERATURE SCALE. GSA Bulletin 1951; 62 (4): 417-426. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1951)62[417:CITS]2.0.CO;2
Download citation file:
A relationship between temperature and relative O18 abundance in calcium carbonate in marine shells has been determined. If the relative O18 abundance of the water in which the shell grew is known, the temperature can be determined to an accuracy of ±1.0°C. The relative O18 contents of marine waters increase with salinity and, in the case of surface marine waters, with salinity and temperature.