This study deals with microtextures and fluid inclusions from veins and vesicles hosted in the Troodos Pillow Lavas that enable a conclusive model for vein formation during the post-magmatic stage of the Troodos supra-subduction zone. Three different types of veins from the Upper and Lower Pillow Lavas are distinguished and imply different modes of fracturing, fluid flow, and precipitation. (1) Syntaxial calcite-, quartz-, and zeolite-bearing veins are interpreted as mineralized extension fractures that were pervaded by seawater. This advective fluid flow in an open system changed later into a closed system characterized by geochemical self-organization. (2) Blocky and (3) antitaxial fibrous calcite veins are associated with host rock brecciation due to hydrofracturing and diffusion-crystallization processes, respectively. Based on aqueous fluid inclusion chemistry with seawater salinities in all studied vein types, the representative fluid isochores crossed with minimum hydrostatic pressure conditions yield vein mineral precipitation temperatures between 180 and 210 °C at 250 bar, independently of the Pillow Lava units. This points to a heat source for the circulating seawater and implies that vein and vesicle minerals precipitated shortly after pillow lava crystallization under dominant isobaric cooling conditions. Compared to previous suggestions derived from secondary mineral parageneses, significant higher temperatures of vein formation in the Troodos Pillow Lavas are proposed.

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