Combined apatite Lu–Hf, U–Pb, and fission track (AFT) triple dating affords the opportunity to investigate the ~60 and 730°C thermal history of a study area. Here, we apply apatite triple dating to resolve the tempo of multiple thermo-tectonic events within the Precambrian basement rocks of the Coompana (COP) and Madura (MAP) Provinces, Western Australia. Apatite Lu–Hf dates for the western COP (~1.52 Ga) and MAP (~1.36 Ga) agree with published Mesoproterozoic magmatic crystallization ages. Younger apatite U–Pb dates (~1.16–1.12 Ga) for the western COP and MAP suggest isotopic decoupling and radiogenic-Pb loss by volume diffusion in response to metamorphism at that time. Further East in the COP, the apatite Lu–Hf, and U–Pb dates are within uncertainty of each other and are interpreted to reflect recrystallization at ~1.20–1.14 Ga, coinciding with the late Mesoproterozoic Maralinga thermomagmatic event. The imprints of such an event were more pervasive towards the eastern COP, resulting in a thermally weakened crust in this area. AFT results constrain the subsequent Phanerozoic low-temperature history which has contrasting thermal trajectories on either side of the Mundrabilla Shear Zone (MSZ). Thermal history modeling suggests an early Carboniferous rapid cooling pulse (~360–330 Ma) for the COP, east of the MSZ, that is contemporaneous with the intraplate Devonian–Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. In contrast, the MAP, west of the MSZ, records a protracted monotonic cooling history since the Middle Devonian, implying long-term crustal stability. The differences in low-temperature thermal histories may be preconditioned by the extent of thermal weakening during the late Mesoproterozoic, as indicated by the Lu–Hf and U–Pb results. Here, we show the value of apatite triple dating applied to grains recovered from drill core samples, demonstrating opportunities for understanding other poorly accessible terranes.

Low-temperature thermochronology (i.e., fission track (FT) and U–Th/He) has been widely used to investigate the post-crystallization thermo-tectonic history of crystalline basement (e.g., [1-4]). Apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U–Th)/He (AHe) are commonly employed thermochronometers to constrain the timing of cooling and resolve geological processes occurring in the shallower part of the crust at low temperatures between ~60 and 120°C [5-9]. Additionally, the apatite U–Pb (AUPb) system has become an important tool to constrain the thermo-tectonic history at higher temperatures (i.e., closure temperature window of ~350–570°C [10]) and the combination of medium- and low-temperature thermochronometers to solve more complex thermal histories has increased (e.g., [10-13]). Furthermore, the in situ LA-ICP-MS multi-dating approach in single minerals, such as the combination of AFT, AHe, and AUPb methods, has offered the opportunity to obtain detailed reconstructions of thermal histories on single grains in a temperature range of ~60–550°C [5, 14]. The recently developed in situ Lu–Hf method in apatite, outlined by Simpson [15], has unlocked apatite thermochronology to even higher temperatures (~660–730°C; e.g., [16, 17]), thus expanding the breadth of geological processes resolvable using this mineral. The use of complementary thermochronometers within the same mineral, and even on the same grains, provides the opportunity to constrain a full thermal history of a region across a previously unprecedented temperature range (~60–730°C), with the potential to become a powerful tool to reveal the thermal history from crystallization to exhumation/cooling in a single grain.

Such an approach is particularly impactful to unravel the thermal history of covered terranes, where outcrops are absent and drill hole samples are scarce and finite over a vast area. The buried Coompana and Madura Provinces in the Eucla Region of western South Australia and eastern Western Australia are examples of relatively poorly accessible basement terranes, covered by a thick limestone and greensand sequence. The MAP and COP Provinces, located between the South and West Australian Cratons (SAC and WAC, respectively; Figure 1(a)), are the crystalline basement buried entirely beneath an extensive Neoproterozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of ~500 m thickness [18-20]. Given the remoteness and the total lack of basement outcrop, this region has only recently been studied in some detail [18-20], and required the use of diamond drill core from stratigraphic drilling programs by the Geological Surveys of Western Australia (GSWA) and South Australia (GSSA), in combination with geophysical surveys by GSWA, GSSA, and Geoscience Australia (GA) [18-24]. Isotopic and geochemical investigations of the basement of this region have shown that the geological evolution of MAP and COP Provinces comprises crust of oceanic affinity produced between the WAC and SAC at ca. 1.95 Ga, with the reworking of this oceanic crust by the onset of subduction at ca. 1.60 and 1.42 Ga, rifting at ca. 1.50 Ga and intraplate magmatism at ca. 1.20–1.10 Ga [18-25]. Given the reworked and ultimately stabilized oceanic crust of MAP and COP Provinces preserved between the WAC and SAC, these studies highlighted that the WAC and SAC never fully collided at least in this region [18, 19]. Nevertheless, its post-magmatic thermal history remains poorly resolved. Here, we aim to investigate the post-crystallization thermal history of the covered crystalline basement using in situ apatite triple dating (Lu–Hf, U–Pb, and FT). We demonstrate the power of this multi-method approach to reconstruct the full thermal history of deeply buried terrane using a single mineral phase from highly valuable/finite sample materials, opening up opportunities for other studies in poorly accessible terranes.

2.1. Geographical Location of the Madura and Coompana Provinces

The Precambrian basement of the MAP and COP Provinces lies beneath the Neoproterozoic–Palaeozoic Officer Basin, the Cretaceous Madura Shelf of the Bight Basin and the Eocene–Miocene Eucla Basin, and straddle the border of Western Australia and South Australia [18, 20, 22, 23, 26]. The COP and MAP Provinces are located between the Archean Yilgarn Craton and its reworked margin, the Proterozoic Albany–Fraser Orogen (AFO), to the west, the Gawler Craton to the east, and the Mesoproterozoic Musgrave Province to the north [18, 20, 23] (Figure 1(a)). Both the COP and MAP Provinces are isotopically distinct from the Yilgarn and Gawler Cratons as well as the Albany–Fraser Orogen, but have similar isotopic signatures to rocks of the Musgrave Province [18, 22, 27-29]. The belt of rocks incorporating the Musgrave, COP, and MAP Provinces has mantle model ages of ~1.95–1.40 Ga and is interpreted to represent ca. 1.95 Ga juvenile (oceanic) crust [18, 29]. The MAP and COP Provinces are separated from each other by the subvertical Mundrabilla Shear Zone (MSZ; Figure 1), which records sinistral displacement identified by geophysical magnetic and gravity data [19, 23, 30]. The MAP is separated from the AFO by the east-dipping Rodona Shear Zone [23, 31] (Figure 1), and the COP from the Gawler Craton by the west-dipping Jindargna Shear Zone [32] (Figure 1.).

2.2. Coompana Province

The COP is subdivided into the eastern and western COP by the northeast-trending northwest-dipping Mulyawara and Tank Shear Zone [19, 23, 33] (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The eastern COP comprises granitic and dioritic to amphibolitic gneisses from the ca. 1.62–1.60 Ga Toolgana Supersuite, that have been metamorphosed up to upper amphibolite facies conditions at ca. 1.19–1.15 Ga [18, 20, 34] (Figure 2). From drill core information, recumbent west-northwest plunging folds in the gneissic layers are cut by the ca. 1.2–1.14 Ga Moodini Supersuite intrusions [18, 22, 25, 34]. The Toolgana Supersuite was interpreted to reflect a subduction-modified mantle source, such as a primitive arc setting built on ca. 1.95 Ga juvenile oceanic crust (i.e., Mirning Ocean crust) between the Gawler and Yilgarn Cratons [18, 20, 29] (Figure 2). Similarities in age and isotopic signatures between the Toolgana Supersuite and meta-igneous rocks of the St Peters Suite in the western Gawler Craton have allowed suggestion of a regionally extensive subduction zone outward of, and on, the margin of the Gawler Craton [22, 35]. The ca. 1.53 Ga Bunburra Suite, also located at the east of the Mulyawara and Tank Shear Zones (Figure 3), comprises dioritic to quartz-dioritic gneisses, which have been metamorphosed up to amphibolite facies conditions at ca. 1.20 Ga [22, 25, 34]. This unit has been associated with the Toolgana Supersuite, as part of a primitive arc system [21, 22, 34] (Figure 2).

The ca. 1.51–1.49 Ga Undawidgi Supersuite comprises granitic to tonalitic plutonic rocks and mafic to felsic volcanic rocks metamorphosed up to lower amphibolite facies [18, 20, 34, 36, 37]. Most of the rocks from Undawidgi Supersuite correspond to A-type MgO-rich felsic rocks, which have been interpreted as the recycling of older arc crust (Toolgana Supersuite) with additional mantle input [18, 22, 38] (Figure 2).

2.3. Madura Province

The MAP comprises a set of mafic and ultramafic rocks, gabbros, peridotites, pyroxenites, and trondhjemite plagiogranites with adakitic affinities (Figure 3), which are grouped into the 1.42–1.39 Ga Haig Cave Supersuite with a maximum metamorphic grade of lower amphibolite facies [18, 23, 39, 40]. This Supersuite has been interpreted as being a component of the Loongana Arc, formed in an intra-oceanic subduction setting away from the passive margin of the AFO, which could have extended to East Antarctica [18, 23, 40, 41] (Figure 2).

The MAP also comprises metabasalts and metasedimentary rocks, which define the Pinto Basalt and Sleeper Camp Formation [19, 23] (Figures 2 and 3). The Pinto Basalt consists of lower amphibolite facies mafic schists, which have been intruded by ca. 1.39 Ga adakitic rocks from the Haig Cave Supersuite [19, 20, 23] (Figure 3). The formation of the Pinto Basalt has been associated with a marginal basin developed within an oceanic-continent transition zone prior to ca. 1.39 Ga [19, 23] (Figure 2). The Sleeper Camp Formation consists of metadolerite and mafic volcaniclastic schists with granitic veins, which have been metamorphosed up to amphibolite facies conditions [18, 19, 23] (Figure 3). U–Pb zircon analyses from a metagranitic vein in the Sleeper Camp Formation yield an age of ca. 1.48 Ga, which has been interpreted as a metamorphic age by Kirkland et al. [18, 42], but alternatively as a primary magmatic age for the igneous protolith by Spaggiari [23] and Wingate [43] (Figure 2). Mafic volcanoclastic rocks have also been dated by Spaggiari [23], and a maximum depositional age of ca. 1.54 Ga has been proposed. According to its variable isotopic signatures that include evolved values (ɛHf −11.8 to +4.1 [18]) and Th-enriched affinities (subduction-modified source trend [23]), two scenarios have been proposed for the formation of the mafic volcaniclastics (Figure 2): (1) hyperextension and reworking of crustal slivers of Archean crust from the Yilgarn Craton [18], or (2) subduction initiation (pre-Loongana Arc), as part of the Arubiddy Ophiolite Complex [19, 23].

2.4. The Moodini Supersuite

Both, the MAP and COP Provinces were affected by widespread A-type magmatism, represented by the Moodini Supersuite, which comprises shononitic series rocks, and high-KFe rocks [18, 21, 44]. The shoshonites are represented by the Bottle Corner Suite in the easternmost part of western COP and Merdayerrah Suite in eastern COP [19, 21, 38] (Figure 3). The Merdayerrah and the Bottle Corner Shoshonites comprise variably foliated magnesian, alkali quartz-syenites, and syenogranites, which intrude the ca. 1.53 Ga Bunburra Suite and the ca. 1.50 Ga Undawidgi Supersuite, respectively [18, 19, 21, 38]. U–Pb dating in zircon yields dates of ca. 1.17 Ga and ca. 1.19–1.18 Ga, for the Bottle Corner and Merdayerrah Shoshonites, respectively, that have been interpreted as crystallization ages [34, 39]. The high-KFe series rocks within the Moodini Supersuite include the Koonalda Suite, which forms a northeast-trending corridor between the Palinar and Border shear zones [19, 21, 25] (Figures 1 and 3), as well the Kestrel Cavern Gabbro and granitic intrusions within the MSZ and in the west of the MAP [18-20] (Figure 3). Zircon U–Pb dates for the Koonalda Supersuite range between ca. 1.20 and 1.14 Ga, with the most representative group ranging between ca. 1.15 and 1.14 Ga [22, 34]. Time-equivalent granodiorite and granitic rocks from the MAP yield zircon U-Pb dates of ca. 1.20–1.18 Ga and 1.13 Ga [18, 39, 45]. Zircon U-Pb dates for the Kestrel Cavern Gabbro of ca. 1.14 Ga have been interpreted as crystallization ages [23, 34]. The Fe- and K-rich magmatic rocks and the shoshonitic series have been interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination/thinning and asthenospheric input following accretionary events [18, 19, 21]. In eastern COP, the Toolgana Supersuite, and the Bunburra Suite exhibit significant degrees of migmatization and yield U–Pb ages in zircon rims of ca. 1.19–1.12 Ga for the Toolgana Supersuite rocks and ca. 1.20 Ga for the Bunburra Suite, which have been interpreted as metamorphic ages [18, 19, 21]. In the easternmost part of western COP, the Undawidgi Supersuite yields metamorphic U–Pb dates obtained on zircon rims of ca. 1.17 Ga [39]. Thus, the anatectic process recorded in the COP is coeval with the widespread magmatism represented by the Moodini Supersuite. A-type rocks from the Pitjantjara Supersuite (1.22, 1.15 Ga [18, 46]) in the western Musgrave Province and Esperance Supersuite (1.20, 1.14 Ga [18, 47]) in the AFO have been correlated with the Moodini Supersuite and reflect a regional lithospheric thinning event [18, 21, 25, 46].

2.5. Sedimentary Cover

The sedimentary cover overlying the COP and MAP Provinces is comprised of the Decoration Sandstone of the Officer Basin, the Madura Shelf of the Bight Basin, and the Eucla Basin [26] (Figure 2). The Decoration Sandstone is the oldest unit that has been identified as nonconformable overlying the Precambrian basement of the COP [20, 26, 34] (Figures 2 and 3). However, available stratigraphic drilling information has not allowed resolution of this surface between the Decoration Sandstone and the MAP. The Decoration Sandstone consists of normally graded coarse-to-fine sediments, comprising a basal conglomerate alternated with thick sandstone and mudstone interbeds, and a top laminated mudstone, with an overall preserved thickness of up to 160 m [26]. The Decoration Sandstone has been correlated with the Lungkarta and McFadden Formations, of the southern Officer Basin and the Supersequence 4 of the Centralian Superbasin, which exhibit a preserved thickness up to ~829 m [26, 48]. An Early Cambrian age has been proposed for the Decoration Sandstone which has been interpreted as a southerly Palaeozoic extension of the Officer Basin (Westwood Shelf), and deposited in a structurally controlled local depocenter [26, 49]. The Cretaceous rift-related Madura Shelf disconformable overlies the Officer Basin to the north and nonconformably overlies the MAP and COP Provinces in the west and east, respectively [26] (Figures 2 and 3). The Madura Shelf comprises coarse-to-fine siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the Loongana and Madura Formation, and represents transgression after thermal subsidence associated with the break-up between Australia and Antarctica [26]. Variable preserved thicknesses of 6–140 and 21–355 m in the Loongana and Madura Formations, respectively, have been observed in drill cores available in the area [20, 26, 34]. An Early Cretaceous age (140, 130 Ma) has been proposed for the Loongana Formation and a mid-Cretaceous age (110, 66 Ma) for the Madura Formation, both based on palynomorphs [26]. At the top of the sedimentary cover sequence, the Middle Eocene Hampton Sandstone of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin disconformably overlies the Madura Shelf (Figure 2) and transitions to the Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene Wilsons Bluff, Abrakurrie and Nullarbor Limestones, all separated by disconformities that mark periods of regressions/transgressions periods (e.g., [26, 49-52]). Preserved thickness up to ~50 m and ~300 m have been observed for the Hampton Sandstone and the Eucla Group Carbonates, respectively [20, 26, 34, 51].

3.1. Sampling

Crystalline basement samples collected by previous drilling campaigns and provided by the GSWA and GA were selected from the COP and MAP Provinces along an east–west transect crossing the main structural features in the area, including the MSZ (Figure 1). Nine apatite samples were analyzed by the U–Pb, Lu–Hf, and FT methods. Two additional samples were analyzed only by AFT. All analyzed samples were previously dated by U–Pb in zircon [22, 34, 39], and their interpreted crystallization ages are presented in Figure 1. Sample locations and brief petrographic descriptions of each sample are presented in Table 1. All sample preparation was carried out at the University of Adelaide. Samples were prepared using conventional protocols (e.g., [53]), where apatites grains were mounted in epoxy resin, and ground and polished in order to expose the maximum internal surface of each grain.

3.2. Apatite Lu–Hf Analysis

Apatite Lu–Hf analyses were conducted in two analytical sessions using a RESOlution-LR 193 nm excimer laser ablation system coupled to an Agilent 8900 ICP-MS/MS, at Adelaide Microscopy, following the method described in Simpson [15] and Glorie [16]. Apatite grains were ablated with a circular laser beam size of 67–120 µm (dependent on grain size), repetition rate of 10 Hz, and fluence of ~3.5 J cm−2. The analyses included 30 seconds of background followed by 40 seconds of ablation and 20 seconds of washout time. A flow of 4 mL minute−1 N2 gas was added to the carrier gas to enhance sensitivity [54]. NH3 gas was used as the reaction gas in the reaction-cell of the ICP-MS/MS for mass filtering purposes, allowing measurements of 176Hf and 178Hf free from isobaric interferences [15, 16]. The isotopes measured were 24Mg, 27Al, 43Ca, 47Ti, 57Fe, 88Sr, 89Y, 90Zr, 140Ce, 146Nd, 147Sm,172Yb, (172+82)Yb, 175Lu, (175+16)Lu, (175+82)Lu, (176+82)Hf, and (178+82)Hf. 175Lu was used as a proxy for 176Lu, and 178Hf was used as a proxy for 177Hf (see details in [15]. Isotope ratios were calculated in LADR [55] using NIST 610 as the primary standard, and OD306 apatite (1597 ± 7 Ma [56]) to correct for matrix-induced fractionation (e.g., [16]. In-house reference apatites Bamble-1 (1097 ± 5 Ma) and Harts Range HR-1 (343 ± 2 Ma) [15, 16] were used as secondary standards to assess data accuracy. Lu-Hf ages of 1102 ± 4 Ma (laser session 1, LA-1) and 1098 ± 5 (laser session 2, LA-2) were obtained for Bamble-1 apatite, and a Lu-Hf age of 346 ± 3 Ma (LA-1) was obtained for HR-1 apatite (online Supplementary File 2), which are in agreement with the published values [15, 16, 57]. Isochron ages were calculated using IsoplotR [58, 59]. The isochron was anchored to an initial 177Hf/176Hf composition of 3.55 ± 0.05 [15, 16]. Uncertainties are reported as 95% confidence intervals and include the propagated uncertainty on the decay constant and the measured Lu-Hf ratio of the correction standard OD306 [16].

3.3. Apatite U–Pb Analysis

Apatite U–Pb analyses were carried out in two analytical sessions, using a RESOlution-LR 193 nm excimer laser ablation system coupled to an Agilent 8900 ICP-MS/MS, at Adelaide Microscopy, following the method of Gillespie [12] and Glorie [60]. Apatite grains were ablated with a circular laser beam size of 30 µm, repetition rate of 5 Hz, and fluence of ~3.5 J cm−2. The analyses included 30 seconds of background followed by 30 seconds of ablation and 20 seconds of washout time. A flow of 4 mL minute−1 N2 gas was added to enhance sensitivity [54]. A suite of trace element concentrations was analyzed, and the isotopes measured can be found in online Supplementary File 3. Isotope ratios were calculated in LADR [55] using Madagascar apatite (473.5 ± 0.7 Ma [61, 62]) as the primary standard for U–Pb age calculations and NIST 610 standard glass for trace element concentrations, using 43Ca as internal standard, assuming 39.4 wt% Ca in apatite. McClure (523.51 ± 1.47 Ma [63]) and Durango (31.44 ± 0.18 Ma [64]) apatites were used as secondary standards to assess data accuracy. Weighted mean U–Pb ages of 529.7 ± 4.3 Ma (laser session 1, LA-1) and 526.1 ± 7.9 (laser session 2, LA-2) were obtained for McClure apatite, and U–Pb ages of 32.7 ± 0.8 Ma (laser session 1, LA-1), 33.0 ± 0.6 (laser session 2, LA-2) for Durango apatite (online Supplementary File 3), which are in agreement within uncertainty with the published values. Lower-intercept ages were calculated from Tera–Wasserburg concordia diagrams using IsoplotR [59], and the reported uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals.

3.4. Apatite Fission Track Analysis

After polishing, all samples were etched with 5.5 M HNO3 for 20 ± 0.5 seconds at 21 ± 1°C to reveal the spontaneous fission tracks. After etching, images of each sample were obtained using a Zeiss AXIO Imager M2m Autoscan microscope system at the University of Adelaide. Spontaneous track counting and confined track length measurements were performed using the FastTracks software [65]. U concentrations were measured in the counted areas using the LA-ICP-MS method [66, 67]. A Zeta calibration factor was determined for each LA-ICP-MS session, using Durango apatite standard. AFT weighted mean ages of 30.7 ± 5.7 Ma (LA-1) and 31.9 ± 2.1 Ma (LA-2) were obtained for the Durango apatite (online Supplementary File 4) and agree with within uncertainty with the published age of 31.44 ± 0.18 Ma [64]. Zeta factors, single-grain, and central ages were calculated using IsoplotR [59]. EPMA analysis was carried out in all samples using a Cameca SXFive Electron Microprobe at Adelaide Microscopy, following the method described in Nixon [8, 68], in order to obtain the apatite geochemical compositions. Based on the EPMA data and the trace element concentrations obtained by LA-ICP-MS, rmr0 multi-kinetic parameters [68, 69] were calculated and used in thermal history modeling. Durango apatite was used as secondary standard and the results are presented in online Supplementary File 4.

3.5. Thermal History Modeling

Thermal histories were modeled with the QTQt software [70], using the AFT annealing model of Ketcham [71]. AFT ages, confined track lengths and the multiple-kinematic parameter rmr0 [69] were used for inverse thermal modeling. No c-axis projection was used during modeling as currently available models significantly overestimate the FT annealing anisotropy of fossil tracks compared to induced tracks at the same etching conditions (e.g., [72]). For each sample an initial constraint was set at the apatite U–Pb age obtained in this study and a temperature of 450 ± 100°C, equivalent to the closure temperature window for this isotopic system (e.g., [10]). Thermal history models were obtained with preserved and assumed stratigraphic constraints according to regional unconformities. Full details and reasoning of the used constraints can be found in online Supplementary File 5. Present-day downhole temperatures were constructed based on a geothermal gradient of 30°C/km with a surface temperature of 25°C and sample depths [20, 34, 73]. When possible, samples taken from the same drill core were modeled together in a single inverse model. The thermal history models generally exhibit good agreement between the observed and predicted data, providing a reliable prediction (online Supplementary File 5).

4.1. Apatite Lu–Hf, U–Pb, and Trace Element Geochemistry

The results of apatite Lu–Hf, U-Pb, and trace element geochemistry are presented separately for the MAP and western and eastern COP Provinces. Apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb geochronology results are reported in Table 2 and presented on inverse isochrons in Figures 4 and 5 and Tera-Wasserburg concordia diagrams in Figure 6. Details of individual analyses can be found in online Supplementary File 1 and 2. A trace element geochemistry discrimination plot [74] is presented in Figure 7 and chondrite-normalized apatite REE diagrams are presented in online Supplementary File 4. The apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb dates have been compared with corresponding published zircon U-Pb ages to constrain the thermal and crystallization histories (Table 2) [22, 34, 39].

4.1.1. Madura Province

Sample 206754 from drill core MAD002 into the Haig Cave Supersuite yields an apatite Lu–Hf isochron date of 1357 ± 30 Ma (MSWD = 2, n = 28; Table 2; Figure 4). An apatite U–Pb date of 1164 ± 11 Ma was obtained for this sample (MSWD = 1.8, n = 34; Table 2; Figure 6), which is significantly younger than the apatite Lu–Hf date. The Lu–Hf date is within uncertainty with the corresponding zircon U–Pb date of 1389 ± 14 Ma [39] (Figures 1 and 4; Table 2). The apatite trace element compositions show a highly LREE-depleted pattern relative to HREE in the chondrite-normalized REE diagram (online Supplementary File 4), with a small negative Eu anomaly. All apatite grains plot in the low- to medium-grade metamorphic and metasomatic rocks field in the Sr/Y versus ΣREE biplot (Figure 7) [74].

Samples 192566 and 192565 from drill cores MORCD002 and MORCD001, respectively, sampled from the Moodini Supersuite, yield apatite Lu–Hf isochron dates of 1151 ± 10 Ma (MSWD = 1.2, n = 42), and 1164 ± 35 Ma (MSWD = 1.9, n = 12), respectively (Figure 4). The apatite U–Pb dates obtained for the same samples are slightly younger than those preserved by the apatite Lu–Hf system (Figure 5; Table 2). Sample 192566 yields an apatite U–Pb date of 1117 ± 11 Ma (MSWD = 1.2, n = 36), and sample 192565 yields an apatite U–Pb date of 1152 ± 14 Ma (MSWD = 2, n = 22). The apatite Lu–Hf and apatite U–Pb dates for both samples are within uncertainty with their corresponding zircon U–Pb dates of 1132 ± 18 Ma and 1125 ± 14 Ma (samples 192566 and 192565, respectively [39]) (Figures 4 and 6; Table 2). The apatite trace element compositions for both samples show a slight enrichment in LREE relative to HREE, and a flat HREE pattern (online Supplementary File 4). The majority of the apatite grains for both samples plot between the I-type/mafic and the high-grade metamorphic fields in the Sr/Y versus ΣREE biplot (Figure 7) [74].

4.1.2. Western Coompana Province

Apatites from sample 206788, from drill core FOR012 into the Undawidgi Supersuite, produced an inverse isochron apatite Lu–Hf date of 1524 ± 68 Ma (MSWD = 1.3, n = 12), which is similar to the published zircon U–Pb age of 1499 ± 18 Ma [39] (Figure 4; Table 2). Apatites yielded a lower-intercept U–Pb date of 1371 ± 28 Ma (MSWD = 1.6, n = 12; Figure 6; Table 2). The apatite U–Pb date is significantly younger than the apatite Lu–Hf and zircon U–Pb dates (Figure 6; Table 2). The apatite trace element compositions show an enrichment in LREE pattern relative to HREE, with a mild Eu anomaly (online Supplementary File 4). All apatite grains plot in the mafic I-type/mafic field in the Sr/Y versus ΣREE biplot (Figure 7) [74].

4.1.3. Eastern Coompana Province

Apatite inverse isochron Lu–Hf dates from the eastern COP samples range between ca. 1195 and 1154 Ma (Figure 5; Table 2), and apatite U–Pb dates range from ca. 1177 to 1135 Ma (Figure 6; Table 2), produced by robust regression lines and lower intercept ages with associated uncertainties of ~1%–1.4%, and MSWD values below 2.2.

Samples 2678826 (CDP004b) and 2678828 from drill cores CDP004 and CPD005, respectively, sampled from the Moodini Supersuite, yielded Lu–Hf dates of 1195 ± 35 Ma (MSWD = 1.5, n = 28), and 1164 ± 15 Ma (MSWD = 1.1, n = 38), respectively (Figure 5). The apatite Lu–Hf dates for both samples are within uncertainty of their corresponding zircon U–Pb dates of 1198 ± 11 Ma (sample 2678826) and 1150 ± 5 Ma (sample 2678828) [22, 34] (Figures 4 and 6; Table 2). The apatite U–Pb dates obtained for the same samples are younger than those obtained with the apatite Lu–Hf system (Figure 6; Table 2). Sample 2678826 yields an apatite U–Pb date of 1153 ± 10 Ma (MSWD = 1.3, n = 34), and sample 2678828 yields an apatite U–Pb date of 1149 ± 16 Ma (MSWD = 0.71, n = 33). The apatite U–Pb date of sample 2678828 agrees within uncertainty with its zircon U–Pb date (1150 ± 5 Ma [22, 34]), while sample 2678826 yields an apatite U–Pb date much younger than its corresponding zircon U–Pb date (1198 ± 11 Ma [22]). Apatite grains from samples 2678826 and 2678828 show high LREE enrichment relative to HREE, with the steepest REE profiles observed in apatite from sample 2678828 (online Supplementary File 4). The majority of apatite grains from sample 2678828 plot in the I-type/mafic field, whereas apatite grains from sample 2678826 plot between the I-type/mafic field and the high-grade metamorphic field in the Sr/Y vs ΣREE biplot (Figure 7) [74].

Samples 2678823, 2678825 (CDP004a), and 192594 from drill cores CDP001, CDP004, and FOR004, respectively, into the Toolgana Supersuite (2678823, 192524) and Bunburra Suite (2678825), yield apatite Lu–Hf isochron dates of 1154 ± 11 Ma (MSWD = 1.2, n = 23), 1173 ± 21 Ma (MSWD = 1, n = 23), and 1178 ± 15 Ma (MSWD = 1.5, n = 27), respectively. All three Lu–Hf dates are significantly younger than their corresponding U–Pb zircon magmatic ages of 1618 ± 6 Ma (sample 2678823), 1526 ± 6 Ma (sample 2678825), and 1611 ± 12 Ma (sample 192594) [22, 34, 39].

The apatite U–Pb dates obtained for the Toolgana Supersuite and Bunburra Suite are within uncertainty with those obtained with the apatite Lu–Hf system (Figures 5 and 6; Table 2), yielding apatite U-Pb dates of 1135 ± 16 Ma (MSWD = 2.2, n = 33) for sample 2678823, 1161 ± 13 Ma (MSWD = 1.5, n = 35) for sample 192594, and 1177 ± 13 Ma (MSWD = 1, n = 46) for sample 2678825 (Figure 6; Table 2). The REE pattern for apatite from samples 2678823 and 192594 exhibits a slight enrichment in MREE and Sm compared to the LREE and HREE and a strong negative Eu anomaly, whereas apatites from Bunburra Suite sample 2678825 show high LREE enrichment relative to HREE and a small negative Eu anomaly (online Supplementary Flile 4). Apatite grains from the Toolgana Supersuite samples plot between the high-grade and the S-type fields in the Sr/Y versus ΣREE discrimination plot (Figure 7) [74]. In the same plot, apatite grains from the Bunburra Suite sample show a trend crossing from the I-type/mafic field into the low- to medium-grade metamorphic and metasomatic rocks field (Figure 7) [74].

4.2. Low-temperature Thermochronology

4.2.1. Apatite fission track data

All samples across the study area yield AFT central ages between ca. 338 and 227 Ma. Most samples (7/11) fail the chi-squared test. However, the chi-squared test need not be considered a reliable measure to assess LA-ICP-MS AFT dates [68, 75]. LA-ICP-MS AFT dates often fail the chi-squared test due to the higher obtained precision on the U concentration measurements. However, it has been demonstrated that the resulting dates are equally accurate as conventional (EDM) FT dating [76-81]. Single-grain age dispersions are less than 18% in those samples that failed the chi-squared test (online Supplementary File 5). Younger single-grain AFT ages are often correlated with relatively higher U concentrations as is observed in samples CDP001, CDP004a, CDP004b, FOR004, and Hannah 1 (online Supplementary File 5). This is a common observation in AFT thermochronology and might suggest Uranium concentration can exhibit a control on FT annealing [77, 78], leading to apparent single-grain overdispersion. AFT data results are summarized in Table 2, and individual data and radial plots can be found in online Supplementary File 5.

In five samples (2678825, 2678826, 267828, 182203, and 192566) more than ~80 confined track lengths were measured and yield mean track lengths (MTL) between ~11.8 and 12.8 µm. For the other samples (2678827, 192594, 2678823, and 206754) only ~20–45 confined track lengths were measured yielding an MTL between ~12 and 12.8 µm. Although these length distributions are less robust, they have been used for thermal history modeling but are only discussed in association with other models (i.e., not discussed independently).

4.2.2. Thermal History Models

Thermal history models, their probability distributions and corresponding observed vs predicted age/MTL plots are presented in online Supplementary File 5. Figures 8 and 9 present the expected time–temperature models (i.e., weighted mean of the posterior distribution [70]) for all samples modeled. Two different types of thermal histories were identified: one exhibiting a rapid-cooling pulse during the Late Paleozoic, while the other shows a slower cooling episode during this period. Thermal history models in Figure 8 and Figure 9 are color-coded according to the relative distance from the main structures (i.e., Palinar, Bunburra, Border, Mundrabilla, and Rodona Shear Zones) in the study area to identify any correlation with proximity to major faults.

The first type of thermal history is only observed to the east of the MSZ (Figures 1 and 8) and is preserved within the north-easternmost samples analyzed from drill cores CDP004 located ~5 km northwest of the Bunburra Shear Zone (samples 2678825, 2678826, and 2678827) and CDP005 located ~7 km northwest of the Palinar Shar Zone (sample 2678828). An unconformity between the Lower Cambrian Decoration Sandstone and COP was used as stratigraphic constraint for all thermal history models (Figure 8; online Supplementary File 5). The expected models for all 4 samples show a well-constrained rapid cooling episode through the apatite partial annealing zone (APAZ) between ~360 and 330 Ma (Figure 8), preceded by a significant heating episode at temperatures higher than the APAZ (i.e., 120°C) after deposition of the Decoration Sandstone (Figure 8). The thermal history model obtained for sample 192594 (drill core FOR004), located ~1 and ~6 km northwest of the Border and Bunburra Shear Zone, respectively, is not as well constrained as only 35 track length measurements were suitable for modeling. However, the model shows a similar relatively rapid cooling event between ∼340 and 280 Ma, with a slightly younger starting age than the samples from drill cores CDP004 and CDP005. The thermal history model for sample 2678823 (drill core CDP001), located ~22 km southeast of the Palinar Shear Zone, is not characterized by the initial fast-cooling episode (Figure 8). Hence, the fast-cooling episode is recorded only for those samples located closer to the main shear zones (Figures 1 and 8), and as samples get further from the main structures the cooling episode becomes less abrupt, until it is largely absent within sample 2678823 (drill core CDP001).

The second type of thermal history applies to all remaining samples in this study (i.e., to the west of the MSZ). The models show a less significative heating episode after deposition of the Decoration Sandstone, which suggests the samples return into the APAZ until ~280–250 Ma (Figure 9). Cooling in this region is notably slower than in samples east of the MSZ, with a slow cooling duration within the APAZ modeled from ca. 380–250 Ma (Figure 9). These models were generated based on the assumption that the Decoration Sandstone was deposited and eroded prior to the deposition of the Early Cretaceous Loongana Formation, which is preserved in the stratigraphic record in the majority of the drill cores. Alternatively, the Decoration Sandstone may never have been deposited in this area, meaning the basement was never exposed to Earth’s surface in the lead-up to the deposition of that formation. This alternate scenario was modeled without the constraint of the Decoration Sandstone unconformity and is presented in Figure 9. This model shows a single protracted cooling history since the Precambrian, bringing the samples to upper APAZ temperatures by ca. 450 Ma, followed by monotonous cooling to below APAZ (<60°C) temperatures by ca. 250 Ma (online Supplementary File 5). In either scenario, the early Carboniferous rapid cooling episode observed in the north-easternmost samples and east of the MSZ is not present west of that shear zone.

The combination of apatite Lu–Hf, U–Pb, and FT analyses allows reconstruction of both the high- and low-temperature thermal history of the COP and MAP Provinces. The high-temperature thermochronometers (i.e., apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb) reveal a Precambrian thermal history, whereas the AFT results reveal the subsequent Phanerozoic low-temperature history (Figure 10).

5.1. High-Temperature Thermochronology

5.1.1. Eastern Coompana Province: high-temperature intracratonic event recorded by apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb

Apatites from the Toolgana Supersuite and Bunburra Suite of the eastern part of COP yield Lu–Hf and U–Pb ages that are decoupled from their corresponding zircon crystallization ages (Table 2). Lu-Hf dates of ca. 1.18–1.15 Ga and U–Pb dates of ca. 1.16–1.14 Ga from the Toolgana Supersuite are markedly younger than the magmatic zircon U–Pb crystallization ages of ca. 1.62–1.61 Ga [22, 34, 39]. Consequently, the apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb dates record a secondary event, related to metamorphism. Apatite trace element data from the Toolgana Suite samples show a trend from the magmatic S-type field to the high-grade metamorphic field (Figure 7), confirming the apatites grew or were at least partially modified during metamorphic conditions. The Toolgana Supersuite records metamorphism up to upper amphibolite facies conditions at ca. 1.19–1.15 Ga as defined by U–Pb dates of metamorphic zircon rims and exhibits significant degrees of migmatization [18-21, 34]. Additionally, well-developed foliation, myrmekitic textures, and mild solid-state strain in quartz have been reported for samples from the Toolgana Supersuite [19, 34, 82], suggesting apatites might have been recrystallized during deformation. Given that metamorphic conditions have likely exceeded the nominal closure temperature window (~660–730°C) for Lu–Hf volume diffusion [16], and the observation of solid-strain deformation, it is not possible to differentiate between recrystallization and volume diffusion as the mechanism for apatite age resetting. It is likely that a combination of both mechanisms has recorded the metamorphic overprint in both apatite isotopic systems (Lu–Hf and U–Pb).

Diatexitic metadiorite from the Bunburra Suite yielded an apatite isochron Lu–Hf age of ca. 1.17 Ga and U–Pb date of ca. 1.18 Ga (sample 2678825), significantly younger than its corresponding U–Pb zircon magmatic age (ca. 1.53 Ga [22, 34]). The apatite trace element compositions reveal a trend from the mafic/I-type field to the low- and medium-grade metamorphic and metasomatic field (Figure 7), indicative of partial REE modification and recrystallization (Table 2). Hence, the apatite in this sample likely recrystallized during metamorphism at ca. 1.19–1.15 Ga [18, 20, 22, 34].

Monzogranites from the Moodini Supersuite in the eastern COP yielded apatite Lu–Hf dates of ca. 1.20–1.16 Ga and U–Pb dates of ca. 1.15 Ga that are in agreement with the zircon U–Pb dates of ca. 1.20–1.15 Ga [34], respectively. Trace element composition from these apatites plot in the I-type granitoids field (Figure 7), indicating that the Lu–Hf system in apatite is recording the primary crystallization age for both samples, and has not been disturbed by post-magmatic events.

Hence, while zircon U-Pb data preserve magmatic histories, the apatite samples from the eastern COP record >660°C deformation and metamorphism coincident with Moodini Supersuite A-type magmatism. The widespread A-type Moodini Supersuite magmatism has been interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination and thinning, with the addition of asthenospheric input following an accretionary event [18, 19, 21]. This event has been correlated with the regional lithospheric thinning event that triggered the formation of the Pitjantjatjara Supersuite in the western Musgrave Province at ca. 1.22–1.15 Ga [18, 46] and Esperance Supersuite, in the AFO, at 1.20–1.14 Ga [18, 47] and after the assemblage of the NAC, WAC, and SAC [18, 21, 25, 46].

5.1.2. Western Coompana and Madura Provinces: Multiple Thermal Events Recorded by Apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb

In contrast to the eastern COP, samples from the western COP and MAP Provinces yield apatite Lu–Hf ages that are in agreement within uncertainty with their corresponding zircon U–Pb crystallization ages but decoupled with the apatite U–Pb dates obtained from the same samples (Table 2).

Sample 206788 from Undawidgi Supersuite, western COP, yielded an apatite Lu–Hf age of ca. 1.52 Ga (Table 2), which is in agreement with the zircon U–Pb crystallization date of 1.50 ± 0.02 Ga [39], but records a younger apatite U-Pb date of ca. 1.37 Ga. Sample 206788 was interpreted to be affected by upper greenschist facies metamorphism [19, 20], and Undawidgi Supersuite samples show evidence of mylonitization, with crenulation and eye-shaped feldspars [19, 83]. Apatites from the Undawidgi Supersuite exhibit LREE-enriched pattern relative to HREE, and all grains plot in the mafic/I-type field (Figure 7). Hence, the apatite Lu–Hf age is recording the primary crystallization age, and the apatite U–Pb age records (partial) isotopic resetting at ca. 1.37 Ga.

Similarly, sample 206754 from the Haig Cave Supersuite yielded an apatite Lu–Hf date of ca. 1.36 Ga, which overlaps within uncertainty with the zircon magmatic age of 1.39 ± 0.02 Ma for the same sample [39]. The apatite U–Pb date of ca. 1.16 Ga for this sample is significantly younger than those obtained with the apatite Lu-Hf and zircon U–Pb systems, and is interpreted to record lower amphibolite facies metamorphism [19, 20]. LREE patterns obtained for the apatites from the Haig Cave Supersuite show LREE depletion (online Supplementary File 4) relative to the HREE, similar to apatites from strongly fractionated granites [84, 85].

Hence, for both samples, the apatite Lu–Hf system remained undisturbed under upper greenschist an lower amphibolite facies temperatures, consistent with observations by Glorie [16] for unfoliated granites that preserve magmatic crystallization ages at temperatures below ~660°C.

Metagranites from the Moodini Supersuite yielded apatite Lu–Hf dates of 1.16–1.15 Ga and apatite U–Pb dates of 1.15–1.12 Ga that, within uncertainty, these dates are in agreement with the zircon U–Pb dates of 1.13 ± 0.02 Ga [34] (Table 2). Similarly, as observed for the eastern COP, the Lu–Hf and U–Pb systems in apatite are recording the primary crystallization ages for both samples and have not been disturbed by post-magmatic events.

The preservation of Lu–Hf dates of ca. 1.52 and ca. 1.36 Ga and a U–Pb date of ca. 1.37 Ga in the MAP and western COP Provinces suggests that the ca. 1.19–1.15 Ga metamorphic event in the western part of the study area was less pervasive (involving minor deformation/recrystallization and/or lower-temperature (i.e., <~660°C) metamorphism) relative to the eastern COP. The ca. 1.37–1.36 Ga dates can be interpreted as recording the final stages of the ca. 1.39–1.37 Ga arc–continent collision of the Loongana Arc with the continental margin of the AFO–Yilgarn Craton [23, 40]; however, no further evidence is available to suggest a certain connection, and alternatively the timing of cooling at ca. 1.37 Ga could be recorded an event that occurred away from the continental margin. Although the geological meaning of this event remains unknown, it is clear that the area between the Mundrabilla and the Tank Shear Zones (Figure 1) was relatively undisturbed by the ca. 1.19–1.15 Ga metamorphic event, suggesting differential exhumation occurred across the study area.

In summary, the differences in apatite Lu–Hf ages between the MAP and western COP Provinces and eastern COP are interpreted as differences in metamorphic grade and deformation, suggesting that the rocks from the eastern COP, located to the east of the Tank Shear Zone (Figure 1), underwent focused deformational processes and/or were subjected to relatively higher temperatures (>~660°C) during the 1.20–1.14 Ga Maralinga tectonic event [19].

5.2. Middle-Late Paleozoic Thermal History of the Coompana and Madura Provinces: Far-Field Response of the Intraplate Alice Springs Orogeny

Thermal history modeling results reveal two different thermal histories for the COP and MAP Provinces: (1) significant rapid cooling during the Late Paleozoic (~360–330 Ma) and (2) protracted and monotonic cooling since the Middle Devonian (ca. 390 Ma).

The ca. 360–330 Ma rapid-cooling episode is only recorded east of the MSZ (Figures 1 and 8). The timing of this cooling episode overlaps with the timing of the intracontinental Devonian–Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny, which is extensively documented in central Australia within the Aileron and Irindina Provinces as well as Amadeus Basin (e.g., [86-89]) and involved extreme basin inversion in these locations (e.g., [90, 91]). The Alice Springs Orogeny (ASO) is thought to be the result of far-field stress propagation from plate boundaries interactions to the interior of the Australian continent (e.g., [86-89]). Although the main tectono-thermal signature is located in central Australia, several studies have recorded exhumation in both northern and southern Australia via low-temperature thermochronology (e.g., [2, 8, 66, 68, 92-97]). Therefore, our data adds to the growing list of locations within Australia that record the ASO and reinforces the idea that the ASO induced a continent-scale thermal event. Deposition of the Decoration Sandstone and other potential correlatives of the Officer Basin is a potential cause for reheating of the underlying rocks, prior to the early Carboniferous cooling. A preserved sedimentary thickness of at least 4.5 km has been estimated for the southwestern Officer Basin (i.e., Buldya Group) that comprises the Lunkgarta Formation [48] which correlates with the Decoration Sandstone [26, 48]. This sedimentary thickness is comparable with that predicted by thermal modeling results (Figure 8).

To the west of the MSZ, this Late Paleozoic rapid cooling episode is not recorded (Figure 9) and instead, protracted monotonic slow-cooling since the Middle Devonian has been modeled until the deposition of the Cretaceous Madura Shelf (i.e., Loongana and Madura Formations; Figure 9). This scenario suggests that rocks west of Mundrabilla SZ were present within the APAZ (~60–100°C), following deposition of the Decoration Sandstone, but experienced less significant burial relative to the eastern flank of the shear zone.

Such disparities in the thermal history suggest differential responses to that far-field strain propagation on either side of the MSZ. To the east of the structure, early Carboniferous reactivation of the Bunburra, Border, and Palinar Shear Zones, coeval with the ASO, is interpreted as the cause of shallow crustal exhumation observed within the thermal models, where fast-cooling correlates with increasing proximity to these structures. Preexisting east-west-striking structures have been identified in the regions where the ASO-related deformation is localized and where Carboniferous rapid-cooling is observed, such as the Aileron and Irindina Provinces [86-89, 91] and Pine Creek Orogen [68], respectively. In contrast, in regions where east-west-trending structural features are absent, a slower and monotonic cooling is observed (e.g., [68]), as is the case for the western side of the MSZ. The west vergence and favorable NE-SW orientation of the Bunburra, Border, and Palinar Shear Zones may have predisposed these structures to accommodate reactivation to the east of the MSZ, which appears to act as the limit of significant exhumation in response of the ASO. The Lasseter Shear Zone, which is thought to be related to or the continuation of the MSZ to the north [19, 98] has been interpreted as the limit of the compressional deformation of the ASO, restricted to the eastern side of this shear zone [99, 100], as the MSZ in the COP and MAP Provinces. As was recorded by the higher temperature isotopic systems in this study (i.e., apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb), the region bounded by the Border and Palinar Shear Zones was subjected to significant deformation and thermal reworking during the late Mesoproterozoic Maralinga event which may have weakened this portion of the crust and further favoring the deformational response observed in the eastern COP. In summary, the eastern COP, east of the Tank Shear Zone, was extensively affected by high-T metamorphism, which thermally weakened the crust. In contrast, the western COP and MAP Provinces (partially) preserve magmatic histories in the apatite record, suggesting the crust remained strong during the ca. 1.20–1.14 Ga Maralinga event. This thermal history helps explain why subsequent heating or deformational events, such as distal footprints of the ASO induced more significant reactivation of the preweakened crust in the east compared to the stronger crust in the west. Hence, the use of multiple thermochronometers in apatite allows integrated high-to-low thermal history reconstructions, which can inform on the cause of differential low-temperature reactivation across a study area by assessing differences in crustal strength.

  1. The application of apatite triple-dating allows to investigate the thermal history of a specific region in a wide range of temperatures, due to the contrasting closure temperatures of each thermo-chronometer, ranging from ~60 to ~730°C. The integrated approach enables information on the timing of (re)crystallization and cooling processes.

  2. The apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb dates for the gneissic samples from the eastern COP are decoupled from their corresponding magmatic ages. Both isotopic systems are recording the timing of recrystallization during the late Mesoproterozoic, supported by disturbances in the apatite trace element compositions.

  3. The apatite Lu–Hf dates for the samples analyzed from the western COP and MAP Provinces are in good agreement with their early and middle Mesoproterozoic magmatic crystallization ages, with no modification/recrystallization evidenced in the apatite trace element composition. In contrast, late Mesoproterozoic apatite U–Pb ages for the same samples are recording a younger thermal event that coincides with the ~1.20–1.14 Ga Maralinga event.

  4. Locally focused deformation in the eastern COP during the late Mesoproterozoic involved greater anatexis and voluminous A-type magmatism compared to the western part of COP and MAP Provinces, suggesting that the deformation was partitioned into a northeast corridor bounded by the Palinar and Border Shear Zones. This focused deformation/metamorphism is documented by the age differences recorded by the apatite Lu–Hf and U–Pb systems in the MAP and COP Provinces.

  5. AFT thermochronology has revealed differences in the cooling history on both sides of the MSZ. East of the MSZ, apatite samples record early Carboniferous rapid cooling associated with far-field exhumation during the Devonian–Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. In contrast, samples from the MAP to the west of MSZ, show prolonged monotonic cooling histories since the Middle Devonian, evidencing long-term crustal stability.

  6. The integrated approach of both high- (Lu–Hf and U–Pb) and low-temperature (FT) thermochronology revealed a relationship between late Mesoproterozoic crustal weakening and more extensive Carboniferous reactivation of this preweakened crust, whereas strong crust was less significantly affected by the Carboniferous deformation event.

All data that support the findings of this study are included within the article and in the supplementary files.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

This work has been supported by the Geological Survey of Western Australia, and the Mineral Exploration Cooperative Research Centre whose activities are funded by the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centre Program. This is MinEx CRC Document 2023/49. Sarah Gilbert and Alexander Simpson are thanked for contributing expertise to the LA-ICP-MS/MS Lu-Hf method and instrument setup. DEK publishes with permission of the Executive Director, Geological Survey of Western Australia. G. Fraser publishes with the permission of the CEO, Geoscience Australia.

Supplementary File 1. Apatite Lu–Hf results.

Supplementary File 2. Apatite U–Pb and trace element results.

Supplementary File 3. Apatite fission track results.

Supplementary File 4. Trace elements diagrams.

Supplementary File 5. Radial plots for AFT data and thermal modeling inputs/outputs.

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Supplementary data