The Liuqu basin formed during the early Miocene between ophiolitic mélanges (to the south) and uplifted Cretaceous forearc deposits (to the north) along a central, 150-km-long segment of the India-Asia suture zone in southern Tibet. Sedimentological analysis shows the Liuqu Conglomerate to be composed of mixed fluvial and sediment-gravity flow lithofacies assemblages locally interbedded with mature paleosols. We interpret the Liuqu Conglomerate as coarse-grained fluvial and alluvial-fan deposits. Structural analysis indicates that the Liuqu Conglomerate was deposited in a contractional setting. Paleocurrent and provenance data demonstrate that sediment was transported north-northwest from the hanging wall of a coeval thrust fault system along the southern limit of Liuqu outcrops. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages (and Hf[t] isotope ratios) cluster around 80–110 Ma (εHf[t] = −23.5–14.6), 120–135 Ma (εHf[t] = −12.6–13.1), 150–170 Ma (εHf[t] = −14.1–14.7), 500–600 Ma (εHf[t] = −26–3.4), and 1100–1200 Ma (εHf[t] = −27.6–2.9), requiring input from both Gangdese and mélange sources. Asian zircons were recycled northward after being incorporated into accretionary mélanges along the southern Asian margin prior to India-Asia collision. The age of the Liuqu Conglomerate is still somewhat uncertain, but new chronologic data, including biotite 40Ar/39Ar data, detrital zircon fission-track analyses, and δ13C compositions of soil carbonates, all converge on ca. 20–19 Ma as the most probable age. Together, these results indicate that part of the north-to-south sediment transport system that existed prior to India-Asia collision and into the Eocene was reversed by ca. 20 Ma. The Liuqu Conglomerate may represent deposits associated with the paleo–Yarlung River.