Ophiolitic peridotites represent variously depleted residues of the primitive mantle after multiple episodes of partial melting, melt extraction, and melt-rock interactions. They display a wide range of compositional and geochemical heterogeneities at different scales, and their incompatible bulk-rock compositions and mineral chemistries are commonly inconsistent with their evolution through simple partial melting processes at shallow mantle depths. Approaching these issues from different perspectives, the papers in this volume concentrate on (1) melt evolution and magmatic construction of ophiolites in various tectonic settings, and (2) the occurrence of microdiamonds, ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals, and crustal material as inclusions in ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites. Crustal and mantle rock units exposed in different ophiolites show that the mantle melt sources of ophiolitic magmas undergo progressive melting, depletion, and enrichment events, constantly modifying the melt compositions and the mineralogical and chemical makeup of residual peridotites. Formation and incorporation of microdiamonds and UHP minerals into chromite grains occurs at depths of 350–660 km in highly reducing conditions of the mantle transition zone. Carbon for microdiamonds and crustal minerals are derived from subduction-driven recycling of surface material. Host peridotites with their UHP mineral and diamond inclusions are transported into shallow mantle depths by asthenospheric upwelling, associated with either slab rollback–induced channel flow or superplumes. Decompression melting of transported mantle rocks beneath oceanic spreading centers and their subsequent flux melting in mantle wedges result in late-stage formation of podiform chromitites during the upper mantle petrogenesis of ophiolites. Future studies should demonstrate whether diamonds and UHP minerals also occur in peridotites and chromitites of nonsubduction-related ophiolites.