Studies have revealed the key role of deep-seated, ore-forming fluids and metals in the generation of the Early Cretaceous large-scale gold deposits in the Jiaodong gold province of eastern China. However, how the ore-forming materials were transported to shallow crustal levels remains unclear. Here, we investigate trace elements and sulfur isotopes of pyrite within mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) of Gushan granite to evaluate the role of the syn-mineralization of mafic enclaves in the transportation of ore-forming materials. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating indicate that the magmatic-hydrothermal event in the potassic-altered Gushan granite occurred at ca. 120 Ma, which is contemporaneous with the Jiaodong gold mineralization. The texture and geochemical compositions of pyrite indicate that pyrite grains hosted by Gushan MMEs are of deuteric hydrothermal origin and precipitated during or shortly after magma mixing. The distribution of elements (i.e., Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Au, Pb, and Bi) and the sulfur isotope (4.14‰−8.8‰) data for pyrites from Gushan MMEs are quite identical to those of the Xiejia diorite intrusion (DI) and other ores from the Jiaodong gold province, which indicates a common source of these pyrites. The common origin of the pyrites, combined with evidence from previous work, suggest that the ore-forming fluids and materials originated from the metasomatized lithospheric mantle, which was the repository of water, sulfur, and volatiles from the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate, rather than by direct release from the subducted sediments of the Paleo-Pacific plate. Our results collectively show that the arc-like mafic magmas derived from the metasomatized lithospheric mantle at ca. 120 Ma were the intermediary that transported the gold and other ore-forming components from the deep mantle to the shallow crustal levels where gold and ore-related material were injected into the Weideshan granitic suite during magma mixing. Thus, the Weideshan granitic suite may have played a critical role by continuously transferring gold to the shallow crustal faults where it precipitated. Therefore, future research or deep-drilling exploration programs in the area should emphasize the Weideshan granitic suite rather than the Xiejia DI.