Continental arc magmatism is crucial in producing juvenile continental crust of andesitic to dacitic composition, yet its impact on the formation of the modern mature continental crust, which is more enriched in potassic and granitic components, remains poorly understood. We examined a suite comprised of norite gabbro, gabbroic diorite, high-Mg diorite, dioritic enclave, and medium-K to high-K granites (the Urad Houqi suite) from the Langshan arc in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon U-Pb geochronology indicates that the Urad Houqi suite was formed ca. 278−268 Ma by a continuous magmatic event, marking the final episode of the late Paleozoic continental arc magmatism in the southern CAOB induced by the subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The suite exhibits a more potassic and fertile composition compared to typical continental arc magmas, and shows a continuous increasing K2O/Na2O ratio and incompatible element concentrations, including K, Rb, Th, and U, with increasing SiO2 content. The geochemical evolution of the suite offers valuable insights into the maturation process of the juvenile arc crust. By combining zircon Hf and bulk-rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotope studies, we demonstrated that the various lithologies within the Urad Houqi suite recorded a three-stage enhancement of the geochemical fertility of the juvenile Langshan arc crust: (1) generation of the initially fertile primary melt from the mantle wedge metasomatized by the recycled subducted sediments; (2) trans-crustal open-system hybridization processes, including peritectic reaction and magma mixing, that further fertilized the derived melts in addition to fractional crystallization; and (3) diverse petrogenetic processes that contributed to the fertility of the granitic magmas, including polybaric fractionation of the primary magma, anatexis of ancient crust, and extraction of high-silica melts from the shallow mush system. The three-stage maturation of the juvenile Langshan arc crust was typically coupled with the accelerated subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean since the earliest Permian. Our study finds that the Urad Houqi suite can serve as an example of modern continental crust maturation at continental arc settings.

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