The orogenic architecture of the Altaids of Central Asia was created by multiple large-scale slab roll-back and oroclinal bending. However, no regional structural deformation related to roll-back processes has been described. In this paper, we report a structural study of the Beishan orogenic collage in the southernmost Altaids, which is located in the southern wing of the Tuva-Mongol Orocline. Our new field mapping and structural analysis integrated with an electron backscatter diffraction study, paleontology, U-Pb dating, 39Ar-40Ar dating, together with published isotopic ages enables us to construct a detailed deformation-time sequence: During D1 times many thrusts were propagated northwards. In D2 there was ductile sinistral shearing at 336−326 Ma. In D3 times there was top-to-W/WNW ductile thrusting at 303−289 Ma. Two phases of folding were defined as D4 and D5. Three stages of extensional events (E1−E3) separately occurred during D1−D5. Two switches of the regional stress field were identified in the Carboniferous to Early Permian (D1-E1-D2-D3-E2) and Late Permian to Early Triassic (D4-E3-D5). These two switches in the stress field were associated with formation of bimodal volcanic rocks, and an extensional interarc basin with deposition of Permian-Triassic sediments, which can be related to two stages of roll-back of the subduction zone on the Paleo-Asian oceanic margin. We demonstrate for the first time that two key stress field switches were responses to the formation of the Tuva-Mongol Orocline.

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