Diverse rock types and contrasting geochemical compositions of post-collisional mafic rocks across the Tibetan Plateau indicate that the underlying enriched lithospheric mantle is heterogeneous; however, how these enriched mantle sources were formed is still debated. The accreted terranes within the Tibetan Plateau experienced multiple stages of evolution. To track the geochemical characteristics of their associated lithospheric mantle through time, we can use mantle-derived magmas to constrain the mechanism of mantle enrichment. We report zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for Early Cretaceous and late Eocene mafic rocks in the southern Qiangtang terrane. The Early Cretaceous Baishagang basalts (107.3 Ma) are characterized by low K2O/Na2O (<1.0) ratios, arc-like trace element patterns, and uniform Sr-Nd isotopic compositions [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7067−0.7073, εNd(t) = −0.4 to −0.2]. We suggest that the Baishagang basalts were derived from partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subducted Bangong−Nujiang oceanic material. We establish the geochemistry of the pre-collisional enriched lithospheric mantle under the southern Qiangtang terrane by combining our data with those from other Early Cretaceous mafic rocks in the region. The late Eocene (ca. 35 Ma) post-collisional rocks in the southern Qiangtang terrane have low K2O/Na2O (<1.0) ratios, and their major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7042−0.7072, εNd(t) = −4.5 to +1.5] are similar to those of the Early Cretaceous mafic rocks. Based on the distribution, melting depths, and whole-rock geochemical compositions of the Early Cretaceous and late Eocene mafic rocks, we argue that the primitive late Eocene post-collisional rocks were derived from pre-collisional enriched lithospheric mantle, and the evolved samples were produced by assimilation and fractional crystallization of primary basaltic magma. Asthenosphere upwelling in response to the removal of lithospheric mantle induced the partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle at ca. 35 Ma.

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