It is generally hypothesized that high-silica (SiO2 > 75 wt%) granite (HSG) originates from crystal fractionation in the shallow crust. Yet, identifying the complementary cumulate residue of HSG within plutons remains difficult. In this work, we examine the genetic links between the porphyritic monzogranite and HSG (including porphyritic granite, monzogranite, and alkali feldspar granite) from the coastal area of southeastern China using detailed zircon U-Pb ages, trace elements, Hf-O isotopes, and whole-rock geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the porphyritic monzogranite and HSG are coeval (ca. 96−99 Ma). The HSG and porphyritic monzogranite have similar formation ages within analytic error, identical mineral assemblages, similar Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, and consistent variations in their zircon compositions (i.e., Eu/Eu*, Zr/Hf, and Sm/Yb), which suggests that their parental magma came from a common silicic magma reservoir and that the lithological differences are the result of melt extraction processes. The porphyritic monzogranite has relatively high SiO2 (70.0−73.4 wt%), Ba (718−1070 ppm), and Sr (493−657 ppm) contents, low K2O and Rb concentrations and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.1−0.2), and it displays weak Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.57−0.90). Together with the petrographic features of the porphyritic monzogranite, these geochemical variations indicate that the porphyritic monzongranite is the residual silicic cumulate of the crystal mush column. The HSG (SiO2 = 75.0−78.4) has variable Rb/Sr ratios (2−490) and very low Sr (1−109 ppm) and Ba (9−323 ppm) contents. Zircon from the HSG and porphyritic monzogranite overlap in Eu/Eu*, Zr/Hf, and Sm/Yb ratios and Hf contents; however, some zircon from the HSG show very low Eu/Eu* (<0.1) and Zr/Hf ratios. These features suggest that the HSG represents the high-silica melt that was extracted from a crystal-rich mush. The injection of mantle-derived hotter mafic magma into the mush column and the exsolution of F/Cl−-enriched volatiles (or fluids) from the interstitial melt rejuvenated the pre-existing highly crystalline mush. Subsequent extraction and upward migration of silicic melt resulting from compaction of the mush column formed the HSG at shallow crustal levels, which left the complementary crystal residue solidified as porphyritic monzogranite at the bottom.
Generation of Cretaceous high-silica granite by complementary crystal accumulation and silicic melt extraction in the coastal region of southeastern China
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Jing-Yuan Chen, Jin-Hui Yang, Ji-Heng Zhang, Jin-Feng Sun, Yu-Sheng Zhu, Eva Hartung; Generation of Cretaceous high-silica granite by complementary crystal accumulation and silicic melt extraction in the coastal region of southeastern China. GSA Bulletin 2021; doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/B35745.1
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