Interactions between lava flows and surface water are not always considered in hazard assessments, despite abundant historical and geological evidence that they can create significant secondary hazards (e.g., floods and steam explosions). We combine contemporary accounts of the 1783−1784 Laki fissure eruption in southern Iceland with morphological analysis of the geological deposits to reconstruct the lava−water interactions and assess their impact on residents. We find that lava disrupted the local river systems, impounded water that flooded farms and impeded travel, and drove steam explosions that created at least 2979 rootless cones on the lava flow.
Using aerial photographs and satellite-derived digital terrain models, we mapped and measured 12 of the 15 rootless cone groups on the Laki lava field. We have identified one new rootless cone group and provide data that suggest another cone group previously attributed to the 939−940 CE Eldgjá eruption was created by the Laki eruption. We then use contemporary accounts to estimate formation dates and environments for each cone group, which formed in wetland/lake areas, on riverbeds, and near areas of impounded water. Furthermore, comparison with previous field studies shows that assessments using remote sensing can be used to identify and map meter-scale and larger features on a lava flow, although remote mapping lacks the detail of field observations.
Our findings highlight the different ways in which lava can interact with surface water, threatening people, property, water supplies, and infrastructure. For these reasons, anticipation of such interactions is important in lava flow hazard assessment in regions with abundant surface water; we further demonstrate that remote sensing can be an effective tool for identifying lava−water interactions in past lava flows.