Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in Eocene and Oligocene planktonic and benthic foraminifera have been investigated from Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean locations. The major changes in Eocene-Oligocene benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes were enrichment of up to l‰ in 18O associated with the middle/late Eocene boundary and the Eocene/Oligocene boundary at locations which range from 1- to 4-km paleodepth. Although the synchronous Eocene-Oligocene 18O enrichment began in the latest Eocene, most of the change occurred in the earliest Oligocene. The earliest Oligocene enrichment in 18O is always larger in benthic foraminifera than in surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, a condition that indicates a combination of deep-water cooling and increased ice volume. Planktonic foraminiferal δ18O does not increase across the middle/late Eocene boundary at our one site with the most complete record (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 363, Walvis Ridge). This pattern suggests that benthic foraminiferal δ18O increased 40 m.y. ago because of increased density of deep waters, probably as a result of cooling, although glaciation cannot be ruled out without more data.
Stable isotope data are averaged for late Eocene and earliest Oligocene time intervals to evaluate paleoceanographic change. Average δ18O of benthic foraminifera increased by 0.64‰ from the late Eocene to the early Oligocene δ18O maximum, whereas the average increase for planktonic foraminifera was 0.52‰. This similarity suggests that the Eocene/Oligocene boundary δ18O increase was caused primarily by increased continental glaciation, coupled with deep sea cooling by as much as 2 °C at some sites. Average δ18O of surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera from 14 upper Eocene and 17 lower Oligocene locations, when plotted versus paleo-latitude, reveals no change in the latitudinal δ18O gradient. The Oligocene data are offset by ∼0.45‰, also believed to reflect increased continental glaciation. At present, there are too few deep sea sequences from high latitude locations to resolve an increase in the oceanic temperature gradient from Eocene to Oligocene time using oxygen isotopes.