Drill cores from a transect of the Mid-America Trench off Guatemala were obtained at three sites on the oceanic Cocos plate, and at four sites on the continental Caribbean plate. An ocean sub-bottom seismometer was successfully emplaced in the deepest hole in the trench landward slope where it was left to record data after departure of the drill ship. Drilling on the Cocos plate recovered a basal chalk sequence deposited during early and mid-Miocene time, a short interval of abyssal red clay, and an upper sequence of late Miocene and younger sediment deposited within an area influenced by a terrigenous source. In the trench, a mud and sand fill less than 400,000 yr old overlies the oceanic sequence. The entire section shows no evidence of compressive deformation even at holes drilled against the trench's landward slope. In contrast, the section cored on the trench's landward slope 3 km from the trench axis is affected by tectonism. The section contains a Cretaceous to Pliocene claystone sequence, broken by hiatuses but in a normal stratigraphic succession that is capped by Pliocene to Quaternary hemipelagic slope deposits. Seismic records show that the section overlies probable igneous oceanic crust from which it is separated by a few hundred metres. That thickness of undrilled section is insufficient to accommodate the potential offscraped volume of oceanic sediment carried into the trench during Neogene plate convergence. At the estimated 10 cm/yr rate of convergence, much of the oceanic sediment must have been subducted rather than tectonically accreted to the Guatemalan margin. Current models for convergent margin tectonics do not satisfactorily explain the surprising occurrence of Cretaceous to Miocene mudstone at the base of this trench slope. The recovery of gas hydrates prevented drilling to some landward-dipping reflections presumed to be imbricate thrust slices at two sites near the middle of the trench landward slope.