Field and laboratory data suggest that variations in structural style are associated with differences in lithologic composition, stratigraphic sequence, and the mechanical behavior of the layers that are drape (forced) folded by differential vertical movements of underlying essentially rigid blocks. This hypothesis is tested by study of experimental, faulted, drape folds in veneers of loose, dry, unconsolidated sand and in multilithologic layered sequences with lubricated interfaces produced under confining pressures to 200 MPa (2 kb) at 25 °C. Deformation of the sand veneer provides a classic example of cataclastic flow. Forced folds develop as a result of microfracturing, rigid-body rotation of grains and fragments, and faulting and gouge development. The sand veneer is thinned drastically in the zone of faulting. The multilithologic, layered veneers with lubricated interfaces exhibit the same magnitudes of “bedding-plane” slip and somewhat more variability in the senses of slip than do specimens not lubricated. With lubrication, however, there is less deformation of the leading edge of the forcing block, less extensile faulting in the upthrown block, and more folding without faulting in the veneer.

First Page Preview

First page PDF preview
You do not currently have access to this article.