The physical and chemical processes that tend to promote an approach to equilibrium between an aqueous solution and one or more minerals in a carbonate system include dispersion, convection, and chemical reactions. When the spatial dependence of ionic constituents is examined from the point of view of these processes, the results show that the distance to attainment of saturation with respect to an individual mineral increases with increasing rates of dispersion and velocity of ground water and decreases with increasing rates of reaction. When all the concentration gradients approach zero, the resulting concentration is demonstrated to be a weighted average of the saturation concentrations for the individual minerals. The qualitative aspects of the predicted concentration behavior are in agreement with both field and experimental observations.

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