Two marshes near Muscotah and Arrington, Atchison County, northeastern Kansas, yielded a pollen sequence covering the last 25,000 yrs of vegetation development. The earliest pollen spectra are comparable with surface pollen spectra from southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Manitoba and might indicate a rather open vegetation but with some pine, spruce, and birch as the most important tree species, with local stands of alder and willow. This type of vegetation changed about 23,000 yrs ago to a spruce forest, which prevailed in the region until at least 15,000 yrs ago. Because of a hiatus, the vegetation changes resulting in the spread of a mixed deciduous forest and prairie, which was present in the region from 11,000 to 9,000 yrs ago, remain unknown. Prairie vegetation, with perhaps a few trees along the valleys, covered the region until about 5,000 yrs ago, when a re-expansion of deciduous trees began in the lowlands.