An area covered by 2250 sq km of active sand dunes existed between Albany and Glens Falls, New York, after retreat of the last Wisconsinan glacier. A scanning electron microscope study of sand grains confirmed the sand dune history and other events inferred from surficial mapping. The dunes were probably active for a brief period between 12,500 and 12,000 yrs B.P. while the upper Hudson Valley was in a local rain shadow caused by southerly winds passing over the Hudson Highlands.

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