Abstract

More than 300 cinder cones on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea volcano reach concentrations of 8/km2 along three principal rift zones where porous low-density tephra may constitute as much as 50 percent by volume of late alkalic eruptives. Both height/width ratios and crater dimensions reflect the equilibrium angle of repose of constituent tephra. Low depth/width ratios of cinder cone craters, resulting largely from posteruption colluvial fills, are similar to those of terrestrial impact craters, making this parameter of questionable value for inferring the origin of some classes of extraterrestrial craters. Most cones have westerly asymmetries which are consistent with orientations of associated tephra lobes, and imply past dominance of trade-wind circulation during the final eruptive phases of the volcano.

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