Pressure by crystallizing salts against pore walls has caused disruption of rock, stone, and concrete, both in urban and desert environments. The Van't Hoff-type equation for osmosis, as modified by Correns, is the basis for theoretical calculations of salt pressures. Under ideal conditions, halite can exert up to 650 atm pressure when it is oversaturated by a factor of 2.

Air pollution, saline ground waters, and street salting in winter readily supply enough salt to inflict severe damage.

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