Methods for determining orientations of principal stress axes in deformed rocks involve dynamic analysis of twin-gliding and of extinction bands produced by inhomogeneous translation gliding in crystals. The methods, beginning with Turner's (1953) technique for dynamic analysis of calcite twins, have been developed using as guides the results from experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Structures induced by intragranular flow in calcite, dolomite, quartz, micas, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, olivine, and other common rock-forming materials, may now be used to derive orientations of principal stresses causing the deformation. The various methods, some new, are discussed in detail and examples of their application to tectonites are given. The usefulness of such studies is illustrated by evaluating the observed orientations of principal stresses around folds in light of new data from a theoretical analysis of large amplitude folding of viscous layers in a less viscous matrix. Other areas of research in structural geology in which these methods should prove useful have also been outlined.