The phase from earthquakes can be divided into 2 short-period parts; the Lg phase can be divided into 2 short-period parts and at least one longer period part. The short-period parts of both these phases have periods of less than one second on World Standard seismograms and the propagation is explained as a result of a low velocity layer in the continental crust. This low velocity layer is interrupted or modified in regions of mountain ranges, continental margins, and other crustal discontinuities.

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