Abstract

A reconnaissance glacial geological study was made in Turkey in 1963. Localities visited were on Uludađ, in northwestern Turkey; the crest of the Taurus Range, along the south coast; Mount Ercyas in the central interior; Mount Ararat, at the eastern border; and the crest of the Pontic Range, along the north coast.

Abundant evidence was found, in all localities visited, for glaciation resembling the Wisconsin of North America, and most localities show some evidence of post-Wisconsin activity. The best expression of possibly pre-Wisconsin glaciation was found in the Taurus Range. The correlation with respect to the Wisconsin is extremely tentative. It is based on geomorphic criteria, such as extent of weathering and erosion, and on geographic criteria, such as latitude of glaciated areas, lowest altitudes reached by the glaciers, and climatic setting of Turkey.

Lack of abundant pre-Wisconsin glaciation is tentatively attributed to recency of uplift, especially in the Pontic region and in eastern Turkey. The occurrence of post-Wisconsin glaciers is supported by indications in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and other Middle East lowlands, of cooler and wetter climate within, but not necessarily throughout, the interval 5000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.

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