European and North African Silurian graptolites occur with pelecypods, orthoceratids, crinoids, and ostracodes. A pelecypod-graptolite faunal association characterizes Silurian age strata in most of North Africa, the Near East, and continental Europe. The nature of the sediment, its remarkable thinness, and the fauna suggest that deposition was slowly taking place throughout the Silurian over a vast platform over which waters were shallow. The pelecypod-graptolite association is deduced to have existed in relatively shallow waters that were colder than waters of similar depth in Britain, Scandinavia, and the Appalachians.

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