The Cenomanian-Turonian formations of central Israel constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer. In this area it is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast, and it contains water under artesian pressure.
A graph of water temperatures and well depths suggests that there is a very small vertical temperature gradient in local segments of the aquifer. The small gradient is believed to result from a large vertical component of flow that tends to equalize the vertical temperature distribution.
On a regional scale the apparent horizontal temperature distribution indicates a westward increase with increasing depth of the aquifer, suggesting a manifestation of the regional geothermal gradient. The westward increase in temperature also implies that the lateral component of flow may be in the normal range for artesian carbonate-rock aquifers whose pores consist mainly of solution cavities.
Locally, pumping appears to have affected the temperature distribution by modifying the natural flow pattern. In parts of the most intensively developed area, the aquifer is hydraulically connected with overlying coastal-plain deposits, and some cooler water has been induced to move into the aquifer from this source. At three other areas, pumping has resulted in an apparent horizontal shift of the isotherms on a temperature-distribution map.
The data suggest that the spatial distribution of temperature may be used to determine some of the flow characteristics of carbonate-rock aquifers.