In his numerous papers on central New York, H. L. Fairchild interpreted almost all the glacial-drainage features as of marginal origin. In the Syracuse-Oneida area, however, there is morphological evidence of subglacial stream erosion by both local and Great Lakes waters, of subglacial deposition by local waters, and of englacial flow in places. Evidence also indicates that the Great Lakes waters in some places flowed in channels walled by ice. Only limited evidence of ice-dammed lakes exists in the Syracuse-Oneida area itself, except at the lowest altitudes, where numerous small shore features indicate a former local lake above the highest Iroquois shore line. There is evidence of two periods of Great Lakes drainage across the hillslopes of the Syracuse-Oneida area during the oscillatory retreat from the Wisconsin maximum. The writer suggests, however, that these two periods of Great Lakes drainage alone are insufficient to account for the vast, complex channel system.

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