Abstract

A tabular quartz diorite complex extends along the Entiat Mountains, which form a southeast-trending spur of the Northern Cascade Mountains. The country rocks of the complex are biotite gneiss, probably derived from arkosic sedimentary rocks, and hornblende schist, probably derived from basic volcanic rocks. Their present mineral composition is typical of the upper epidote amphibolite and amphibolite facies of regional metamorphism.

During regional metamorphism the biotite gneiss was granitized to biotite-quartz diorite gneiss and the hornblende schist to hornblende-quartz diorite gneiss. The metamorphic origin of these quartz diorite gneisses involving relatively little replacement is shown by their chemical and mineralogical similarity to the original biotite gneiss and hornblende schist, by their enclosing long, thin, undisturbed layers of country rocks, and by their association with migmatites formed by metamorphic processes. Here and there in the quartz diorite gneisses massive rocks with hypidiomorphic granular “igneous” textures have formed principally by recrystallization, and these features are associated with small-scale swirling of the foliation and some intrusive features, which show that the gneiss was rendered plastic and mobile during granitization.

Migmatites containing replacement bodies and secretions of leucocratic quartz diorite occur in the biotite gneiss and in most of the rocks of the complex—particularly in the biotite-quartz diorite gneiss. During the formation of the complex, the felsic material contained in the leucocratic rocks, principally sodium, potassium, and silicon, was generated by metamorphic differentiation.

During the granitization, anatectic magmas were formed by fusion of hornblende-quartz diorite gneiss, and some similar magma intruded from below. Melting without metamorphic differentiation is indicated by the chemical similarity between the anatectic quartz diorite and the parent hornblende-quartz diorite gneiss. Smearing out of inclusions and crystals and the tabular, sill-like nature of the bodies indicate that fusion may have been triggered by differential movement and shearing. The anatectic rocks contain inclusions of hornblende schist that survived both the granitization to hornblende-quartz diorite and the fusion. Crystallization differentiation of the anatectic magmas yielded potassium-rich pegmatites and local granodioritic masses. Regional metamorphism continued after the anatectic magmas in the sills had solidified; felsic metamorphic differentiates occur in leucocratic quartz diorite that partly replaces the borders of the sills. The leucocratic material was plastic and facilitated differential movement between the sill and its walls.

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