Professor Baulig agrees with L. C. King in that he adopts as probably correct the theory that pediplanation has produced all the ancient planed land surfaces of continental extent which truncate even the most resistant rocks. He rejects, however, King's claim of universality for pediplanation and affirms belief in the process of downwearing of the land surface under humid climates. He claims, that planed surfaces on uplands in regions now temperate originated as true peneplains during a widespread late Tertiary extension of the hot-humid, or “tropical”, climatic zone. He is critical of a number of the assertions included by King in the “canons” of landscape evolution, advances substantial arguments against some of King's claims for strictly parallel backwearing, and counters the bold statements that all surfaces hitherto called peneplains are pediplains and that the peneplain is “an imaginary landform”. He also rehabilitates the concept of normal erosion and justly claims that no acceptable word has been proposed as a substitute for “normal” in this connection. He champions the principle of the profile of equilibrium.