Abstract

To place geomorphology upon sound foundations for quantitative research into fundamental principles, it is proposed that geomorphic processes be treated as gravitational or molecular shear stresses acting upon elastic, plastic, or fluid earth materials to produce the characteristic varieties of strain, or failure, that constitute weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition.

Shear stresses affecting earth materials are here divided into two major categories: gravitational and molecular. Gravitational stresses activate all downslope movements of matter, hence include all mass movements, all fluvial and glacial processes. Indirect gravitational stresses activate wave- and tide- induced currents and winds. Phenomena of gravitational shear stresses are subdivided according to behavior of rock, soil, ice, water, and air as elastic or plastic solids and viscous fluids. The order of classification is generally that of decreasing internal resistance to shear and, secondarily, of laminar to turbulent flow.

Molecular stresses are those induced by temperature changes, crystallization and melting, absorption and desiccation, or osmosis. These stresses act in random or unrelated directions with respect to gravity. Surficial creep results from combination of gravitational and molecular stresses on a slope. Chemical processes of solution and acid reaction are considered separately.

A fully dynamic approach requires analysis of geomorphic processes in terms of clearly defined open systems which tend to achieve steady states of operation and are self-regulatory to a large degree. Formulation of mathematical models, both by rational deduction and empirical analysis of observational data, to relate energy, mass, and time is the ultimate goal of the dynamic approach.

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