Along the upper course of the Kansas or Kaw river, in the northern part of eastern Kansas, are good exposures of the rocks belonging to the Permo-Carboniferous and Permian systems.. The early students of the geology of the state—Meek, Hayden, Swallow, Hawn, and later St. John—clearly recognized the importance of this section, although there was a decided difference of opinion among them regarding the structure and correlation of the rocks.

The strongest feeling that has ever existed in reference to any question concerning the geology of Kansas was developed by this controversy, and now that most of the participants in the discussion have passed away, it is interesting to review the arguments and compare them with our present knowledge of these formations. Later writers apparently have not considered to any extent the descriptions of this section, and on this account it also seems advisable to call attention . . .

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