In order to extend the chronology and validate the five substages of the Wisconsin glaciation recognized in the Cache la Poudre Valley in the Colorado Front Range, a reconnaissance was made of the Southern Rocky Mountains, from southern Wyoming to Santa Fe, New Mexico. The chronology determined in the Cache la Poudre Valley was used to date the culture layer of the Lindenmeier (Folsom) Site in northern Colorado.

The earliest or Twin Lakes substage is named for the “early moraine” mapped by Capps at Twin Lakes in the Upper Arkansas Valley. This substage is believed to have been contemporaneous with the Durango glaciation of the San Juan Mountains.

Throughout the Southern Rocky Mountains the second, third, and fourth, or Home, Corral Creek, and Long Draw substages, can be readily correlated from valley to valley. The fifth or youngest substage, represented in some cirques by protalus ramparts, is named the Sprague substage.

The validity of five distinct substages of Wisconsin ice advance, separated from one another by interstadial ice retreat or complete disappearance, is based on: (1) the character and topographic position of the moraines; (2) the relationship between successive terraces (valley trains) and the terminal moraines, as determined in the Cache la Poudre Valley; (3) the differences in weathering of the tills composing the moraines; and (4) the reported finding of an old soil zone between tills assigned to the Twin Lakes and Home substages.

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