From the presence of fresh erratic stones and ice-scoured topography it is concluded that Newfoundland was completely glaciated during the Wisconsin stage of the Pleistocene. The glaciation had three recognizable episodes: (1) the maximum episode, (2) the Bay St. George episode, and (3) the cirque-forming and local moraine episode. During the first of these, ice spread as a complete cap from the Long Range Plateau, the Central Plateau, and the Avalon Peninsula outward in all directions to beyond the present shore lines of the island. It overrode the Anguille and the Bay of Islands mountains. It rounded the uplands and gouged out the fiords. During the second episode the ice margins receded, and fossiliferous marine sediments were deposited. These marine sediments were in several places overriden during a readvance of the ice which in the Bay St. George area deposited a fairly stout and continuous moraine. During the third episode the ice had dwindled to local glaciers excavating cirques at the heads of valleys and building minor moraines such as those at South Branch and Kittys Brook. The land has subsequently risen so that the marine sediments are well above sea level. Evidence from raised and warped strand lines suggests that Newfoundland was completely glaciated by ice spreading from the Labrador center at the climax of Wisconsin glaciation.

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