From the beginning of history, nations have differed in their physical environments and therefore in their economic opportunities. Their activities have been influenced and limited by climate, soil, topography, and accessibility. Only in the last century have mineral resources loomed as an important element in man’s environment because they were not used on a large scale until the Industrial Revolution. The world’s mineral supplies are large enough for all if they were equally distributed among the nations, but unfortunately they are not. Nations favored by their possession of mineral supplies necessary for industrialization are the ones which in modern times have taken a commanding position in world affairs. Military power is coming more and more to be measured in terms of guns, ships, automobiles, and airplanes, rather than by man power alone, and these implements are in turn limited by the capacity of the industrial plants and the . . .