On an Anniversary occasion such as this it is appropriate to review certain perennial problems which have long been the subject of geological study and which do not obviously admit of immediate or definitely final solution. The hot-spring problem, for example, has been a subject of active discussion throughout a century or more, and opinions concerning the magmatic or meteoric origin of hot-spring waters are still highly controversial. Possibly its continuing indeterminate status is due to the fact that direct observation is possible only at the surface while the vital relationships are below ground and for the most part completely screened from direct observation. There are no convenient mine-shafts in the hot-spring country. Moreover hot springs are evanescent mechanisms in geologic history which leave no permanent exposures from which the sources of energy and water supply may be confidently traced.
It happens that this particular subject of study was beautifully . . .