Were this a popular audience I should have illustrated my paper very fully. But geologists I am sure have mental pictures of most of the physiographic features referred to, so I have preferred to use no pictures lest they detract attention from the broader principles I wish to emphasize.

For the average man, New York harbor, the Mediterranean Sea or the Appalachian Mountains have always been and will always be just where and as they are now. That some geologists, even, hold that some of our scenery dates back little changed to Mesozoic or even Paleozoic time is shown by frequent references to the Cretaceous or Jurassic age of the highest Appalachian peneplain.

In contrast with both views I present the thesis that most of the world’s scenery, its mountains, valleys, shores, lakes, rivers, waterfalls, cliffs, and canyons, are post-Miocene, that nearly all details have been carved since the . . .

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