When, in 1917, the contour maps of the Coastal Plain portion of Virginia appeared, the writer became interested in certain peculiarities of James River and adjacent streams, as represented on these maps, and a close study was begun to see if their meaning could not be determined from the maps. The features in question consisted in upland and floodplain meander scars,2 indicating the former positions of meanders when the stream was flowing at higher levels than it does today, and meanders, generally more or less intrenched, in the present course of the tidal portion of the stream. The writer became interested in these features because it seemed probable that, if they could be correctly interpreted, they would throw considerable light on the conditions of the streams which formed them, particularly as to whether they were then, as now, flowing at tidelevel, or were normal streams with an appreciable grade . . .