For years it has been believed that the Missouri River owed its present course very largely to the influence of ice-sheets. This was first recognized by General G. K. Warren in 1868. In 1916 Prof. A. G. Leonard, State Geologist of North Dakota, published his conclusion, after some years of study, that the channel of the Missouri through North Dakota was of Teritiary origin, and that the ice-sheets of the Pleistocene had little effect upon its course.

This conclusion is diametrically opposed to that of South Dakota geologists; consequently the writer undertakes in this paper to show the errors of Dr. Leonard and, on the contrary, the reasons for believing that before the ice-sheet influenced the Missouri River the Missouri was made up of various streams leading to the north and east, and that the ice, by damming them, caused the water accumulating along its western edge to form . . .

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