Deformation in which a few feet or a few inches of a section have been crumpled and contorted without disturbing the adjacent strata attracted the notice of geologists as early as 1846, when Emmons2 described the disturbed clays at Albany, New York. Although a number of examples of this phenomenon have been described and various explanations of it offered, the subject appears to be still open to experimental investigation.
It is proposed in this paper to cite two examples of contorted beds which have come under my notice and to describe some experiments which illustrate the principles involved in certain classes of contorted beds.
Deposition and erosion both proceed with great rapidity on the mudflats about the estuaries of the Bay of Fundy because of the strong tidal currents and the great volume of suspended sediment in the waters. A considerable part . . .